For us to better understand how they counted Pentecost, let us go to the eyewitnesses that lived at the time of our Saviour, to see how it was done. Philo the Jew, who lived at the time, shows that the 50th day count to Pentecost “begins” on the morrow “AFTER” the seventh Sabbath complete, NOT 50 days from  the wave sheaf, and therefore the 50th day after the WAVE SHEAF is NOT Pentecost. You are to number 50 days after the 7th Sabbath and then offer the new grain offering on the day of Pentecost.. The 50th day is counted from the day “after” the seventh Sabbath complete, NOT from the wave sheaf.
Quoting from Philo The Special Laws 11 page 584, chapter 30 (176) “THE SEVENTH FESTIVAL XXX. (176)
"The “solemn assembly” on the occasion of the “festival” of the sheaf having such great privileges, is the “prelude” to “another” festival of still “greater importance”; for "from this day” the “fiftieth day” is reckoned, making up the sacred number of seven sevens, with the addition of a “unit” as a seal to the whole; and this festival, being that of the first fruits of the corn, has derived its name of Pentecost from the number of “fifty,”

From the above we see that waving of the sheaf was a solemn assembly Festival and from this day/16 was a prelude to another Festival of greater importance, referring to the Morrow after the seventh Sabbath, because FROM IT, the Morrow after the 7th Sabbath, the 50th day was reckoned. THE 50TH DAY WAS NOT RECKONED FROM THE WAVE SHEAF, but from the Morrow after the seventh Sabbath and that’s why it was of greater importance. Please read the quote.
They observed the 16th of the 1st month as a feast and solemn assembly when they waved the sheaf and it was called a “prelude” or introduction to “ANOTHER” feast that was “more important” than the “first feast”/16th that was held on the 16th ( Why was it greater?) because it was from “this more important feast” that the 50th day is reckoned which consists of seven sevens plus one making up the sacred number which equals 50 which means Pentecost. (How much plainer can it get?????)
This 2nd feast that is more important than the 1st feast, or 16th, is the morrow after the seventh Sabbath complete and is the day that people today are keeping for the traditional Pentecost, but according to chapter 30 above, they are keeping the feast that is “greater are more important” than that of the “wave sheaf” but it is NOT Pentecost even though it is greater because Pentecost is numbered or reckoned from this day. The traditional feast that people are keeping is the one that Philo says is more important than the wave sheaf because the 50th day, which is the GREATEST FEAST, is reckoned from it, and Pentecost is the “GREATEST” feast. This is in harmony with Lev-23 where it says “even unto the morrow AFTER the seventh Sabbath shall you number fifty days and then bring a new meat offering”.

Now to show a living EXAMPLE from Philo, where it was done as described above and where Pentecost was kept 50 days “after” the seventh Sabbath complete.

Quoting from Philo page 704, chapter eight (65) ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE V111 (65) we read about a group of Orthodox Jews called Therapeutae and Therapeutrides, Philo says, “they devoted their whole lives and themselves to the knowledge in contemplation of the affairs of nature in accordance with the most sacred admonitions and “precepts of the Prophet Moses.” V111 (64) after saying this he continues by saying, “(65) In the first place, these men “assemble” at the “end” of seven weeks, venerating not only the simple week of seven days, but also its multiplied power, for they know it to be pure and always virgin; and “it” is “a “prelude” and a kind of “forefeast” of the “greatest” feast, which is assigned to the number fifty,”

People today are keeping the prelude to the GREATEST FEAST which is assigned to the number 50 instead of counting the 50th day. We have went from the wave sheaf feast that was on the 16th of Aviv to a “greater feast/prelude” that was on the morrow AFTER the 7th Sabbath complete to the “GREAST” feast/Pentecost which is assigned to the number 50. Acording to Philo, there were 2 feasts before Pentecost, the wave sheaf and the Morrow after the seventh Sabbath and both were called preludes or introductions to another feast, the 1st one was the 16th (wave sheaf) which introduced the second feast which was the morrow after the seventh Sabbath complete and this second feast was of greater importance than the 1st because “from it” the “GREATEST” feast/Pentecost was reckoned, and according to Philo, the 2nd feast ( the one after the seventh Sabbath complete) was a kind of “fore feast” of the GREATEST feast/Pentecost that took place after number and 50 days including the one after the 7th Sabbath.

This “prelude” and a kind of “fore feast” is speaking of the morrow “after” the seventh Sabbath complete, it is “not” Pentecost which takes place 50 days from “it”. This forefeast was not Pentecost it is the feast that people are keeping for Pentecost today but in our Saviour's time these Orthodox Jews kept it as a prelude to the greatest feast/Pentecost which took place on the 50th day from there. Remember the 16th, when the wave sheaf is offered, is a prelude to another festival that takes place on the morrow after the 7th Sabbath, and is of greater importance than the 16th itself because it is from this day that the 50th day is reckoned. He is not talking about the 50th day of Pentecost here, but the day the 50th day is recond from, ever one know that Pentecost is “greater” than the 16th, he is speaking of the morrow after the 7th Sabbath when the numbering to the 50 day begins and it is also called a “prelude” to Pentecost, same as the 16th/feast was called a prelude to the morrow after the seventh Sabbath, and we have record where Philo speaks of men keeping this second feast as a prelude and kind of forfeast to the “GREATEST” FEAST i.e. Pentecost, in other words this second feast was greater than the first feast/wave sheaf on the 16th but it was not the GREATEST feast/Pentecost which took place after numbering
50 days . Now to prove my interpretation of Philo is correct, I will let Philo interpret Philo, the same as I let Scripture interpret Scripture. I will now quote from Colson's Translation of Philo to prove what I am saying is correct. Quoting from the special Laws,11 Chapter 30,

“The “festival” of the sheaf, which has all these grounds of precedence, indicated in the Law, is also in fact, anticipatory of another “greater feast” For it is “from it” (the greater feast) that the 50th day is reckoned, (how is it reckoned?) by counting seven sevens, (not Sabbaths), which are then “crowned” with the “sacred number” by the monad, which is spent in corporal image of YHWH,”
In speaking of the “greater feast”, Philo says, “for it is “from it” that the 50th day is reckoned,” (how is the reckoned???? by counting seven sevens (not Sabbaths) which are then crowned with the sacred number by the monad/one which is spent in the corporal image of YHWH. How much plainer could Philo have made it?

The morrow after the 7th Sabbath, is the feast of greater importance than the 16th or wave sheaf that Philo spoke of because it is a prelude or kind of forfeast to the GREATEST feast i.e. Pentecost. Same as the 16th or wave sheaf was a prelude to the 2nd feast or morrow after the seventh Sabbath.
Bottom line is that in Philo's day and in Aaron's day, the feast of Pentecost/50th day was numbered from the morrow “after” the seventh Sabbath complete as Leviticus 23 teaches. 

Brother Arnold

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The following will conclusively show that the Apostle Paul only had EIGHT TRAVELING DAYS to travel 1000 mi. in order to keep the traditional Pentecost at Jerusalem and they were only averaging 30 mi. per day.  This makes it an impossibility for the traditional Pentecost.



We can actually show that with the traditional Pentecost count, Paul only had 8 travel days in which to travel 1000 mi., which would be an average of 125 mi. per day and about 100 of these miles were on foot, half of which, with animals and an old disciple from Caesarea to Jerusalem.

This kills the traditional Pentecost theory because they only traveled 150 mi. in five days from Philippi to Troas, and this by ship, which is an average of 30 mi. per day. After this, the Scripture shows about seven more examples where they were still only averaging about 30 mi. per day for the first 500 mi.

This can be verified by reading Acts 20:13 through 17 and measuring the distance between these cities with the map in the back of most Bibles and comparing the days with the mile.

This gives us a scriptural precedence of how many miles they average per day by ship, which was the fastest means of travel of that day.


If the above statement about the eight travel days and the 1000 mi. can be proven, which I will do shortly, it makes the traditional Pentecost impossible.  The Consider this, five of the eight days, from Philippi to Troas, are already gone, and this leaves only THREE days to travel the other 820 mi. This means they would have to average 273 1/3 miles per day. And as I said above, some of these miles would be on foot.

Did Paul and company average 273 1/3 miles per day or 820 mi. in three days? Absolutely not because they only averaged about 30 mi. per day for the 1st 500 mi. and this alone should make the honest truth seeker take another look at Leviticus 23:16 and number the 50 days AFTER the seventh Sabbath instead of the wave sheaf, and that would give them another 50 days in order to have enough time to reach Jerusalem and keep the Pentecost that Paul and the thousands of Jews were keeping.  If they used two more of the remaining three days in order to go another 60 mi., this would leave another 760 mi. and only one day to travel it.

The reason Paul only had eight travel days with the traditional count is because the Scripture records at least 42 days that there was no travel for the Apostle Paul and company, and this is not even counting some of the seven weekly Sabbaths that would have fallen during this time. When we subtract 42 from 50 it leaves only "eight days" to make the 1000 mi. journey.

Here's how I come up with 42 no travel days to Pentecost. I will also show how that Paul was ahead of schedule and had arrived at Jerusalem at least 10 days before Pentecost which leaves only 40 days with the traditional count but first let's start at Philippi.

They were not traveling during the seven days of Unleavened Bread at Philippi and for those that begin the 50 day count to Pentecost from the 16th of the first month, this would account for six of the no travel days, assuming they left the very next day after Unleavened Bread.

The Scripture says they sailed away from Philippi AFTER the days of unleavened bread and came unto them in Troas in FIVE DAYS, where they abode SEVEN DAYS. This would account for another seven days of no travel, a total of 13 NO TRAVEL DAYS.

Paul sailed by Ephesus to Miletus and sent for the elders of Ephesus to come down to Miletus and if he immediately sent a runner, it would have taken at least THREE DAYS to go up and find the elders and bring them back down to Miletus where they had a meeting. Verse 17.

At any rate, when looking at the map, three days is not unreasonable when counting the trip up, notifying the elders, and then back and then the meeting itself. This is a total of 16 days that they were NOT traveling.

They tarried SEVEN MORE DAYS at Tyre, Acts 21:4, a total of 23 NO TRAVEL DAYS. They left Tyre and abode ONE-DAY with brethren in verse seven a total of 24 NO TRAVEL DAYS. They left the brethren and came unto Caesarea and they tarried there MANY DAYS. It is obvious that they made good time finding ships, etc. so they were now ahead of schedule.

I will be very generous and only count EIGHT DAYS at Caesarea.  I'm not going to pretend that I believe it was only 8 days because we find the word “many” used by the same author of acts and it usually would not be understood to mean less than 40. He uses such phrases as MANY WORDS, and we would not think that this would be eight words. He uses the phrase MANY DAYS, when referring to the Messiah being seen of them “MANY DAYS” and in another place, speaking of the same event, it says, being seen of them 40 DAYS. Another place speaks of being beaten with MANY STRIPES and another place says 40 stripes save one. So we see the phrase “many” being equal to 40 etc.

The phrase MANY THOUSANDS is also used and when we look at the phrase many stripes, many days, and many words, many thousands, they all refer to more than eight, therefore allowing only eight days is being very generous to say the least. Luke could remember as high as seven days twice, five days once etc. I am sure he could have remembered eight days and by him saying many days, I tend to believe it was more than 15 or 20, or at least enough days that he could not remember, probably 39 or 40 and therefore he said MANY DAYS because they were so many that he did not remember. At any rate, even with allowing only eight days, this still brings us to a total of 32 days that Paul was NOT TRAVELING.

The scriptural evidence shows they arrived in Jerusalem at least 10 days before Pentecost. There are no indicators to indicate that they arrived at Jerusalem just-in-time for Pentecost. It says that when they reached Jerusalem the brethren received them gladly and the NEXT DAY (This adds one more day of no travel, a total of 33 days) they went in unto James and the elders who informed them that there were THOUSANDS of believing Jews that would here that he had come up to the feast and advised him to PURIFY himself with four men that had a vow on them in order to show that he was a Law keeper and this he did the NEXT DAY, a total of 34 no travel days.

NOTICE: some might try to say that this was Pentecost but the Scripture does not read that way and why purify himself for seven days AFTER Pentecost was over, to show them anything because the multitudes would be left for their journey home by then. Purifying is done BEFORE a feast as it says in John 11:55. The truth of the matter is that Paul arrived in plenty of time to purify himself with these men and the Scripture teaches that Pentecost had not occurred as of yet. Continuing on,

Then when seven days was almost finished, some Jews from Asia, (acts 21:27) who had came up for the feast, discover Paul in the temple and stirred up the MULTITUDE that had gathered in for Pentecost, so I will add another SIX DAYS to the 34 no travel days bringing us to a total of 40 NO TRAVELING DAYS and is still not Pentecost.

NOTICE: another indicator that Pentecost was not yet is because of the Jews from Asia, which was about 600 mi. away, were still there and so was the crowd or multitude that they stirred up.

If you read Acts -21:27 through 24:19 you will find the other two days that Paul was in custody brings the total to 42 DAYS OF NO TRAVELING before the traditional Pentecost, leaving only EIGHT TRAVEL DAYS from Philippi to Jerusalem. At 30 mi. per day, they would need 30 travel days to travel 900 miles and the scripture teaches they did NOT have them.


Pentecost had not taken place until after Paul had been arrested and taken to Caesarea where the priest came down AFTER FIVE DAYS and the Jews from Asia didn't even show up, they probably had started their 600 mi. journey back home after Pentecost. Paul was a Roman citizen and they would not hold him any longer than necessary without allowing him to face his accusers. It is not a five-day journey from Jerusalem to Caesarea and I believe that as soon as Pentecost and the new moon day was over the priest went down to accuse Paul. The Scripture just does not read or indicate that Pentecost was going on before Paul's arrest or before purification.

All of the indicators suggest that Pentecost took place after Paul was taken to Caesarea and this explains the five days before the priest came down to accuse Paul. The Jews from Asia and the other multitudes of people that had come up early would have left after Pentecost was over, same as people do today, not hanging around another seven or eight days after Pentecost,. You will see other indicators when you read it for yourself, with an unbiased mind of course.

Also remember that even without the extra days at Jerusalem before Pentecost, it still won't do away with the fact that he could not have made it for the traditional Pentecost, even for those who count from the traditional Sabbath that falls within the days of unleavened bread.

Paul did not wait at Caesarea for many days and then leave so late as to arrive at Pentecost just in the neck of time. The following will show that many Jews went up early for the three major feasts.

Paul was no less zealous than the Jews who had already gathered at Jerusalem and did not leave in just enough time to barely get there for service, like some preachers today. The Historian Josephus even tells how they went up seven days early to purify themselves BEFORE the feast of Unleavened Bread.

In Josephus wars of the Jews pg. 742 Ch 5- (290) "when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the EIGHTH DAY of the month Xanthicus [Nisan]," The foot note "e" in Josephus says that a week before Passover they went up to Jerusalem to PURIFY themselves, John 11:55 agrees with Josephus, quote:

We know that great crowds had gathered for Pentecost when James told Paul, "see how many thousands of Jews that believe" and we read a scriptural account of this in John.

John 11:55

"And the Jews' Passover was nigh at hand: and MANY went out of the country up to Jerusalem BEFORE the Passover, to PURIFY themselves"


This verse proves my point about the many zealous Jews that went up before these feasts. I believe the many that went up before the feast were the devout Jews who were zealous of the LAW and we know that Pentecost commemorates the giving of the law or at least we can prove the law was given on the day that they called a Chag/Pentecost, which was 50 days AFTER the 7th Sabbath. Ex-32:5

Here's another scripture in John which shows early arrivals for the major feasts.

John 12:1 is also in agreement with Josephus. "1Then our Saviour six days BEFORE the Passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead. 2There they made him a supper;

Also remember how He went in and out of the temple and back and forth to Bethany each day before they took Him on the 14th? These Historical quotes from Josephus and Scripture prove that the Jews normally went up to Jerusalem before Pentecost and that's partly why James said that they were zealous toward the Law, (Pentecost) and that is why they went up early.

Paul was no less devout than these Jews and besides, it had been many years since he had last been up to Jerusalem and he said he must by all means keep this feast that cometh up at Jerusalem. This statement shows that Paul was not going up just to be on time for Pentecost, but to witness and fellowship with the brethren, before Pentecost and the fact that he abode MANY DAYS at Philips house in Caesarea shows that he was ahead of schedule and that he had plenty of time to arrive at Jerusalem a week or two before Pentecost to accomplish his intent.


Paul desired to keep Pentecost at Jerusalem, if possible. The reason Paul said, if possible, is because the catching of ships was uncertain, not to mention the possibility of unfavorable winds and other delays that might occur, and having to depend on someone else. But having reached Tyre and Caesarea, it is evident that Paul had a prosperous journey and had found ship's without having to wait too long and they had favorable winds etc. because the Scripture shows that he was well ahead of schedule because he stayed seven days at Tyre and many days at Caesarea and this he would not have done, had he not made good time.

The following is those who after finding out that it is mathematically impossible for Paul to have kept the traditional Pentecost, and began hollering that Paul did not make it to Pentecost, instead of rethinking Leviticus 23:16 and number 50 days after the seventh Sabbath, I submit the following which shows he did make it for the intended Pentecost.

Paul was warned, by the Spirit at Tyre not to go up to Jerusalem and again at Caesarea by Agabus the prophet. This not only shows that Paul and company were ahead of schedule on their journey to Jerusalem to keep Pentecost but that they had not broken the journey from Philippi to Jerusalem for Pentecost. This is important to show that they accomplished their desire to make it to Jerusalem for Pentecost but not the traditional Pentecost.

All anyone has to do in order to see that Paul and company were still headed to Jerusalem to keep the SAME Pentecost that they had set out for, after leaving Philippi, is to read the running account in Acts chapter 20 through chapter 21:4 and 21:4 says the disciples at Tyre, through the Spirit, told Paul that he should not go up to Jerusalem.  At this point no one would argue that the push for keeping Pentecost in true from had changed.

The next seven versus shows that two or three days later, after receiving this warning, Paul reached Philips house in Caesarea and AGAIN received another warning from Agabus the Prophet, further warning him not to go up to Jerusalem. These warnings against going up to Jerusalem is for the SAME trip and this shows that Paul left Caesarea to keep Pentecost in Jerusalem, as was his intention from Philippi.

Paul made it known Agabus the prophet and everyone that he was going continue his journey and go up to Jerusalem for Pentecost and was willing to die also, if necessary.  There is nothing to suggest that Paul and company did not make it to Jerusalem in plenty of time for the true Pentecost.  Only someone who does not understand that the true Pentecost is 50 days after the seventh Sabbath, with even suggest such a thing, after reading Acts chapters 20 and 21.